Differenze tra le versioni di "Bozza:Storia dei concetti"

Il metodo sperimentale consiste nella predisposizione e manipolazione intenzionale di variabili nel tentativo di derivare relazioni causale. Le ricerche sperimentali di solito includono le seguenti componenti: ipotesi, variabili dipendenti e indipendenti, gruppo di controlli, vincoli e tentativi ripetuti. Le ricerche che non controllano le variabili per determinare relazioni causali sono di tipo non-sperimentale. Esse includono le ricerche osservazionali/descrittive, le ricerche correlazionali, le ricerche epidemiologiche<ref>{{Cita pubblicazione|nome=Ian C.|cognome=Binns|nome2=Randy L.|cognome2=Bell|data=2015-10-01|titolo=Representation of Scientific Methodology in Secondary Science Textbooks|rivista=Science & Education|volume=24|numero=7|pp=913–936|lingua=en|accesso=2021-11-30|doi=10.1007/s11191-015-9765-7|url=https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-015-9765-7}}</ref>.
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The rubric identifies two primary views of science methodology: traditional and broad. The traditional view stresses that scientists follow a step-wise approach referred to as ‘‘the scientific method,’’ that scientists must test hypotheses, or that scientists only conduct experimental research (Lederman 2004; NRC 1996, 2012). The broad view stresses that scientists use a variety of methods and that there are multiple types of research, including descriptive, correlational, epidemiological, and experimental research (Huitt 2003; Lederman 2004; Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick, Bell, and Schwartz 2002).
Experimental investigations generally included the following components: hypothesis, dependent, and independent variable, control group, constants, and repeated trials (Cothron, Giese, and Rezba 2006). Non-experimental investigations were those investigations where variables were not controlled to determine causal relationships (Maeng, Mulvey, Smetana, and Bell 2013).
Results also showed that four of the eight textbooks, Glencoe Biology, ES: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe, Holt Biology, and Holt Chemistry, explicitly stated that scientists cannot always conduct experiments, promoting the broad view. For example, Glencoe Biology showed improvement from the earlier edition reviewed by Decker et al. (2007). It emphasized that scientists do not always conduct experimental investigations and included examples to support this claim.
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