Utente:Torredibabele/Sandbox: differenze tra le versioni

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Oltre ai settori coperte dal sistema di scambio europeo, ciascuno stato membro può tenere conto dei livelli di emissione in altri settori. Ad esempio, i trasporti sono responsabili del 21% delle emissioni di gas serra della UE, i nuclei familiari e le piccole e medie imprese del 17% e le attività agricole del 10%.<ref>[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/pdf/m06_452_en.pdf Questions and Answers on Emissions Trading and National Allocation Plans for 2008 to 2012] EU November 2006</ref>
 
DuringDurante Phasela Iprima fase, mostla allowancesmaggior inparte alldelle countriesquote wereè givenstata freelyassegnata (knowngratuitamente. Questo approccio è stato criticato per asgarantire [[grandfatherprofitto clausefortuito|grandfatheringprofitti fortuiti]]). Thisai approachbeneficiari hasdelle beenquote, criticized{{Byper whom|date=Mayessere 2010}}meno asefficiente givingdell'assegnazione rise totramite [[windfall gainAsta_(finanza)|windfall profitasta]]s, beinge lessper efficientcomportare thanpochi auctioning,incentivi andallo providingsviluppo toodi littlefonti incentivedi forenergia innovativepulite newe competitionrinnovabili. to provide clean, renewable energy.<ref>[http://assets.panda.org/downloads/171envteffectivenessaexecsummaryv60.pdf Öko-Institut report: "The environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency of the EU ETS] WWF November 2005</ref><ref>[http://www.climnet.org/component/docman/doc_download/1147-0506napreport.html NAPs 2005-7: Do they deliver?] Climate Action Network Europe 2006</ref> OnD'altra theparte, otherl'allocazione hand,libera allocationrispetto rathera thanquella auctioningtramita mayasta becompetitiva justifiedpuò foressere agiustificata fewper sectors,alcuni e.g.settori, aluminiumcome andl'alluminio e steell'acciaio, thatsoggetti facealla internationalconcorrenza competition,internazionale ande wheredove theil priceprezzo ofdella CO<sub>2</sub> svolge carbonun isruolo importantimportante (Neuhoff, 2009;<ref name=neuhoff>{{Cite book
|date=22 February 2009|author=Neuhoff, K. |title=Memorandum submitted by Karsten Neuhoff, Assistant Director, Electric Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge |series= The role of carbon markets in preventing dangerous climate change. The fourth report of the 2009-10 session |publisher= UK Parliament House of Commons Environmental Audit Select Committee
|url=http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmenvaud/290/290we22.htm
|accessdate=2010-05-01}}</ref> Newbery, 2009; Carbon Trust, 2009;<ref name=carbont/> SeeVedi alsoanche thela sectionsezione onsulla [[European Union Emissions Trading Scheme#Competitiveness|competitiveness]]competitività).
 
 
 
To address these problems, (citation needed) the European Commission proposed various changes in a January 2008 package, including the abolishment of NAPs from 2013 and auctioning a far greater share (ca. 60% in 2013, growing afterward) of emission permits.
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