Differenze tra le versioni di "Shiur"

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[[File:Beit Midrash da Yeshivá Machon Meir, Jerusalém.jpg|thumb|La ''Beit Midrash'' (sala di studio) della [[Yeshivah]] Machon Meir, a [[Gerusalemme]].]]
'''Shiur''' ([[ebraico]]: שעור, plur. '''shiurim''', שעורים) nell'[[Ebraismo]] è una lezione su un qualsiasi dato argomento o soggetto della [[studio della Torah|Torah]], quale può essere la [[Ghemara]], [[Mishnah]], [[Halakhah]], [[Tanakh]], e altro.
 
TheLo ''shiur'' hasè beenstato ail primaryprincipale methodmetodo ofdi teachinginsegnamento sincesin dai tempi della [[MishnaMishnah]]ic times. In aun famousfamoso passo [[Talmudtalmud]]ic passageico, Rabbi [[JudahYehudah haNasiHaNasi]] averredaffermò thatdi heaver gainedmaturato hisuna sharpmente mindacuta from watchingosservando [[Rabbi Meir]] deliverinsegnare thecon il sistema dello ''shiur''. HoweverTuttavia, sincepoiché the lecturel'aula hallera wasmolto so crowdedaffollata, hisYehudah seataveva waspreso behindposto thedietro lecternal leggio, sovedendo he only sawcosì Rabbi Meir fromsolo thedi back.spalle "Had Ie seendichiarò himquindi:"Se l'avessi fromvisto thedi frontfronte, howquanto muchpiù greatergrande wouldsarei I have becomediventato!" he declared.<ref>''Eruvin'' 13b, citedcitato insu {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=MY4xtbRlxWIC&pg=PA167&dq=eruvin+13b+meir+rabbeinu+hakadosh&hl=en&ei=PNdbTcf4MoWw8QP3qtSVAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=eruvin%2013b%20meir%20rabbeinu%20hakadosh&f=false |title=Modesty: An adornment for life |page=167 |last=Falk |first=Rabbi Pesach Eliyahu |year=1998 |publisher=[[Feldheim Publishers]] |isbn=0-87306-874-2}}</ref>
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==History==
The shiur has been a primary method of teaching since [[Mishna]]ic times. In a famous [[Talmud]]ic passage, Rabbi [[Judah haNasi]] averred that he gained his sharp mind from watching [[Rabbi Meir]] deliver the shiur. However, since the lecture hall was so crowded, his seat was behind the lectern, so he only saw Rabbi Meir from the back. "Had I seen him from the front, how much greater would I have become!" he declared.<ref>''Eruvin'' 13b, cited in {{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=MY4xtbRlxWIC&pg=PA167&dq=eruvin+13b+meir+rabbeinu+hakadosh&hl=en&ei=PNdbTcf4MoWw8QP3qtSVAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=eruvin%2013b%20meir%20rabbeinu%20hakadosh&f=false |title=Modesty: An adornment for life |page=167 |last=Falk |first=Rabbi Pesach Eliyahu |year=1998 |publisher=[[Feldheim Publishers]] |isbn=0-87306-874-2}}</ref>
 
==Apprendimento in Yeshiva==
==Yeshiva learning==
[[File:Carteret beis medrash.jpg|thumb|La Yeshivah Gedola di [[Carteret (New Jersey)|Carteret]]: studenti durante un ''seder'', 2009.]]
Traditionally, a shiur refers to the type of learning that takes place in [[yeshivot]] and [[kollel]]im, in which students hear an in-depth lecture on the [[sugya]] (Gemara topic) the yeshiva is studying at the time.
Tradizionalmente, la ''shiur'' si riferisce a quel tipo di studio che viene offerto presso le [[yeshivoth]] e ''kollelim'',<ref name="koll"/> dove gli studenti prendono parte a lezioni approfondite sulla ''[[Ghemara#La sughiya|sugya]]'' (materia della [[Ghemara]])). Tipicamente, gli studenti della yeshivah frequentano una ''shiur yomi'' (lezione giornaliera) presentata dal ''maggid shiur'' (letteralmente: "lettore della shiur") ed una ''shiur klali'' (lezione riassuntiva completa, compendio dell'apprendimento offerto nella settimana) settimanale, data da dal ''[[rosh yeshiva]]''.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.haretzion.org/prospective-students/38-frequently-asked-questions |title=Frequently Asked Questions |publisher=Yeshivat Har Etzion |year=2010 |accessdate=13/02/2013}}</ref>Questi normalmente offre anche la shiur principale con frequenza quotidiana. Prima dell'inizio della shiur, viene esposta una bibliografia e una serie di riferimenti testuali in modo che gli studenti si possano preparare per la lezione. Tali studenti tipicamente passano diverse ore a prepararsi per la ''shiur yomi'' e dopo la lezione passano altro tempo a ripassare e chiarire ciò che è stato presentato. Tali periodi di preparazione e revisione si svolgono durante un tempo particolare chiamato ''seder'', dove gli studenti ripassano la lezione individualmente e/o in ''chavruta'' (coppia di studio).
 
''Shiurim'' mayvengono alsoofferti offerednella inyeshivah yeshivaanche onsu topicsmaterie inrelative all'[[MussarEtica movement|mussarebraica]] (e [[Mussar]]), al [[Chumash (JudaismEbraismo)|Chumash]], ande alla ''hashkafah'' (Jewish[[filosofia philosophyebraica]]), dependinga onseconda thedella yeshiva ande thetipo learningdi levelapprendimento ofdei itsrelativi studentsstudenti.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.derechhatalmud.comorg/show.asp?PID=7 |title=Frequently Asked Questions |publisher=Derech HaTalmud |year=2010 |accessdate=15 February 201113/02/2013}}</ref>
Typically, yeshiva students attend a daily ''shiur yomi'' (daily lecture) given by a [[maggid shiur]] (literally, "sayer of the shiur") and a weekly ''shiur klali'' (comprehensive lecture, which sums up the week's learning) given by the [[rosh yeshiva]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.haretzion.org/prospective-students/38-frequently-asked-questions |title=Frequently Asked Questions |publisher=Yeshivat Har Etzion |year=2010 |accessdate=15 February 2011}}</ref>The rosh yeshiva usually also gives the top shuir on a daily basis. Before the shiur, a bibliography and a series of textual references are posted so that students may prepare for the lesson in advance. Students typically spend several hours preparing for the ''shiur yomi''. After the shiur, students spend additional time reviewing and clarifying the lesson that they have just heard. These preparation and review periods take place in a special time period called a ''seder'', in which students study the lesson individually and/or in ''[[Chavruta|chavrutot]]'' (study pairs).
 
===Livelli===
Shiurim may also offered in yeshiva on topics in [[Mussar movement|mussar]], [[Chumash (Judaism)|Chumash]], and ''hashkafah'' (Jewish philosophy), depending on the yeshiva and the learning level of its students.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://derechhatalmud.com/show.asp?PID=7 |title=Frequently Asked Questions |publisher=Derech HaTalmud |year=2010 |accessdate=15 February 2011}}</ref>
''Shiur'' è anche il nome dato ai vari livelli di apprendimento nella [[yeshivah]]. Per esempio, studenti del primo anno vengono assegnati allo "Shiur [[Aleph]]"; studenti del secondo anno allo "Shiur [[Bet (lettera)|Bet]]"; studenti del terzo anno allo "Shiur [[Gimel (lettera)|Gimmel]], ecc. Nei ''kollelim'',<ref name="koll">'''kollel''' ([[ebraico]]: כולל, plur. כוללים, ''kollelim'', un "gruppo" o "insieme" [di studiosi]), indica un istituto per lo studio superiore della [[studio della Torah|Torah]] a tempo pieno, studio che include anche quello del [[Talmud]] e della [[letteratura rabbinica]]. Come la [[yeshivah]], il ''kollel'' offre ''shiurim'' e apprendimento ''sedarim'' (sessioni di studio); a differenza della yeshivah, il corpo studentesco di un ''kollel'' è composto solo da studenti coniugati. I ''kollelim'' usualmente pagano uno stipendio regolare ai propri studenti.</ref> gli shiurim superiori designano livelli più avanzati di apprendimento.
 
==Sessioni di studio pubblico==
===Class levels===
Anche i [[Synagoguerabbino|rabbini]] rabbisdi and[[sinagoga]] notede rabbisaltri inrabbini therinomati communitydella alsocomunità giveebraica, offrono shiurim toalle theirproprie constituenciescongregazioni. InNelle shulssinagoghe, thelo shiur givenpresentato betweentra [[Mincha]] ande [[Lista di preghiere e benedizioni ebraiche|Maariv]] isè di solito adatto ad usuallyun gearedpubblico todi ''baalebatim'' (workinglaici, menlavoratori). NotedRabbini rabbisdi givefama more in-depthoffrono shiurim topiù complessi attendeesdurante onlo [[Shabbat]] oro weekdaydi eveningssera, usuallyusualmente inpresso thela localsinagoga synagoguelocale oro [[la ''beth midrash]]'' (studysala di hallstudio).<ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=vXgNPaLIs5oC&pg=PA623&dq=what+is+a+shiur&hl=en&ei=lUlaTczfHojNhAeom6zhDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=what%20is%20a%20shiur&f=false |title=The Seraph of Brisk: Rabbi Yehoshua Leib Diskin|last=Wallach |first=Shalom Meir |page=623 |publisher=Tevunah Publishers |date=Januarygennaio 2004 |isbn=1-58330-708-7}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=sa06PAem-SgC&pg=PA293&dq=what+is+a+shiur&hl=en&ei=lUlaTczfHojNhAeom6zhDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=what%20is%20a%20shiur&f=false |pages=293–294 |title=Mentor of Generations: Reflections on Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik |last=Eleff |first=Zev |year=2008 |publisher=Ktav Publishing House|isbn=978-1-60280-011-3}}</ref>
A shiur is also the name given to the different class-levels in a yeshiva. For example, first-year students are said to be in "Shiur [[Aleph]]"; second-year students are in "Shiur [[Bet (letter)|Bet]]"; third-year students are in "Shiur [[Gimel|Gimmel]], etc. In kollelim, the higher shiurim accommodate more advanced levels of learning.
 
==Uso moderno==
==Public study sessions==
Nell'uso moderno del termine, "shiur" è stato esteso ad includere qualsiasi tipo di lezione sulla [[Torah]] – comprese le lezioni ai bambini, alle donne, ed ai ''baalebatim'' (pubblico non accademico), e lezioni registrate con [[audiocassette]], [[CD]]-[[DVD]], [[online]], [[MP3]] o [[M4a|MP4]], o anche per via telefonica. Sebbene per definizione lo ''shiur'' sia una lezione strutturata e completa, alcune organizzazioni dell'[[Ebraismo ortodosso]] pubblicizzano "shiurim di 5-minuti" per attrarre ascoltatori principianti.<ref>{{en}} {{cite web |url=http://www.cckollel.org/five_minute_halacha_shiur.shtml |title=The Chicago Community Kollel Five-Minute Hilchos Tefillah Shiur |publisher=Chicago Community Kollel |accessdate=13/02/2013}}</ref>
[[Synagogue]] rabbis and noted rabbis in the community also give shiurim to their constituencies. In shuls, the shiur given between Mincha and Maariv is usually geared to ''baalebatim'' (working men). Noted rabbis give more in-depth shiurim to attendees on [[Shabbat]] or weekday evenings, usually in the local synagogue or [[beth midrash]] (study hall).<ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=vXgNPaLIs5oC&pg=PA623&dq=what+is+a+shiur&hl=en&ei=lUlaTczfHojNhAeom6zhDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=what%20is%20a%20shiur&f=false |title=The Seraph of Brisk: Rabbi Yehoshua Leib Diskin|last=Wallach |first=Shalom Meir |page=623 |publisher=Tevunah Publishers |date=January 2004 |isbn=1-58330-708-7}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=sa06PAem-SgC&pg=PA293&dq=what+is+a+shiur&hl=en&ei=lUlaTczfHojNhAeom6zhDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=what%20is%20a%20shiur&f=false |pages=293–294 |title=Mentor of Generations: Reflections on Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik |last=Eleff |first=Zev |year=2008 |publisher=Ktav Publishing House|isbn=978-1-60280-011-3}}</ref>
 
==Modern use==
In modern parlance, the term "shiur" has been extended to include any kind of Torah lesson &mdash; including lectures to children, women, and ''baalebatim'' (non-scholarly audience), and taped lectures circulated via cassette tape, computer hookup, [[MP3]] or [[MPEG-4 Part 14|MP4]] connection, or call-in telephone lines. Though by definition, a shiur is a comprehensive, structured lesson, some [[Orthodox Judaism outreach|kiruv]] organizations advertise "five-minute shiurim" to attract beginning listeners.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cckollel.org/five_minute_halacha_shiur.shtml |title=The Chicago Community Kollel Five-Minute Hilchos Tefillah Shiur |publisher=Chicago Community Kollel |accessdate=15 February 2011}}</ref>
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==Collegamenti esterni==
*{{en}} [http://sites.google.com/site/mattschneeweiss/howtoreviewshiur "How to Review Shiur: A Practical Guide"]