La collezione è costituita da oltre 2500 monete e altri reperti di differenti ere storiche: dall'antichità e dal Medio Evo fino ai tempi moderni, compreso il periodo della formazione del moderno stato ucraino.
The core of the collection is a collection of ancient coins minted by various city states, and especially of the Bosporan Kingdom which existed in the Northern Black Sea Region for almost a thousand years. Among them are many unique and rare coins of great scientific interest.<ref>Vladimir P. Alexeev. "Rare and Unique Coins of the Ancient Towns in the North Black Sea Region". Monograph (with English translation).[http://www.ant.md/en/publish/stratum.htm ''International archeological journal "Stratum plus"'']. No.6 (2003-2004), 2005, pp 364-373. Issue of University "High Anthropological School". Kishinev. Republic of Moldova. ISSN 1608-9057.</ref>
Besides the numismatic exhibition, the Museum collection includes many other ancient Ukrainian historical artifacts: antique ceramics and items of ancient Russian fine art. Medieval small art plastics of Kievan Rus' form the separate Museum's collection reflecting the diversity of the kinds of ancient Ukrainian arts and crafts in their historical development: from pieces of ornamental and decoration dating from the Pre-Christian period of Kievan Rus (pendants, broaches "lunnitsa", amulets, signet rings) to the antiquities of the Christian Epoch (icons, crosses, cross - amulets "enkolpyons"). Metal breast plates with the Princely heraldry of Rurik dynasty (two-prong and trident) are very rare and have a special interest for Ukrainian historians.