Differenze tra le versioni di "Downtown Eastside"

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La popolazione del DTES è stimata fra le 6000 e le 8000 persone; rispetto ad altre zone della città, vi è una maggiore proporzione di maschi, di adulti che vivono soli, e di [[nativi americani|aborigeni canadesi]].
A seconda delle fonti, il DTES si considera costituito da un minimo di 10 a un massimo di 50 isolati<ref>[http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/bc-premiers-olympic-plan-worries-activists/article658346/]</ref> a est del [[Financial District (Vancouver)|financial district]]. Benché non vi siano indicazioni esatte dei confini del quartiere, la zona più nettamente associata al nome di DTES è costituita dagli isolati di [[Hastings Street]] e [[Cordova Street]] compresi fra Cambie Street e Jackson Avenue.<ref>[http://www.straight.com/news/798701/10-years-police-data-reveals-how-gentrification-has-affected-crime-downtown-eastside]</ref> L'area in cui i problemi sociali e sanitari della zona sono più visibili ha il proprio centro all'incrocio di Hastings Street e [[Main Street]], una zona a cui il ''[[Vancouver Sun]]'' si è riferito nel 2006 con l'espressione "i quattro isolati dell'inferno".
La zona oggi nota come DTES fa parte dei territori tradizionali dei popoli [[Squamish]], [[Tsleil-Waututh]] e [[Musqueam]]. La colonizzazione europea dell'area cominciò alla metà del [[XIX secolo]], e molti dei primi edifici furono distrutti nel [[grande incendio di Vancouver]] del 1886. Gli abitanti ricostruirono le proprie case sulle sponde del [[Burrard Inlet]], fra [[Cambie Street]] e Carrall Street, ovvero nella zona oggi chiamata [[Gastown]]. Alla fine del secolo, il DTES era il centro della città, sede del municipio, del tribunale, delle banche, delle principali attività commerciali e della [[Carnegie Community Centre|biblioteca pubblica]]. Nello stesso periodo cominciarono a formarsi le comunità giapponesi e cinesi di [[Japantown]] e [[Chinatown (Vancouver)|Chinatown]].
During the [[Great Depression in Canada|Depression]], hundreds of men arrived in Vancouver in search of work. Most of them later returned to their hometowns, except workers who had been injured or those who were sick or elderly.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 1"/> These men remained in the DTES area – at the time known as [[Skid Road]] – which was a non-judgemental, affordable place to live. Among them, drinking was a common pastime.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 1"/><ref>"Demolish City's Skid Road, Murder Protest Demands". ''Vancouver Sun,'' 6 April 1962. p.1</ref> In addition to being a major cultural and entertainment district, [[Hastings Street (Vancouver)|Hastings Street]] was also a centre for [[public house|beer parlour]]s and brothels.<ref name="Douglas 2002, chapter 1">Douglas 2002, chapter 1</ref>
In 1942, the neighbourhood lost its entire ethnic Japanese population, estimated at 8,000 to 10,000, due to the [[Japanese-Canadian internment]]. Most did not return to the once-thriving Japantown community after the war.<ref name="Mackie2014-1">{{cite news|last1=Mackie|first1=John|title=Japantown: Vancouver’s lost neighbourhood|url=http://www.vancouversun.com/Japantown+Vancouver+lost+neighbourhood+with+video/9483788/story.html|accessdate=13 August 2016|work=Vancouver Sun|date=19 February 2014}}</ref> In the 1950s, the city centre continued its shift westward when the [[British Columbia Electric Railway|interurban rail line]], whose main depot was at Carrall and Hastings, closed.<ref name="Mackie2008">{{cite news|last1=Mackie|first1=John|title=Carrall Street: Home to some of Vancouver's coolest bars, a stone's throw away from crackheads|url=http://www.nationalpost.com/m/related/Carrall+Street+Home+some+Vancouver+coolest+bars+stone+throw+away+from/2207786/story.html|accessdate=21 April 2016|work=The National Post| place=Toronto|date=18 October 2008}}</ref> Theatres and shops moved towards [[Granville Street|Granville]] and [[Robson Street|Robson]] Streets.<ref name="Douglas 2002, Introduction">Douglas 2002, Introduction</ref> As tourist traffic declined, the neighbourhood's hotels became run-down and were gradually converted to low-income residential housing, a use which persists to this day.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 1"/> By 1965, the area was known for prostitution and for having a relatively high proportion of poor single men, many of whom were alcoholic, disabled, or pensioners.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 1"/>
[[File:CarnegieCtr.jpg|thumb|left|alt=refer to caption|[[Carnegie Community Centre]] at the corner of Main and Hastings.]]
{{Reduced pull quote |right |When we deinstitutionalized, we promised [mentally ill] people that we would put them into the community and give them the support they needed. But we lied. I think it's one of the worst things we ever did.|Senator [[Larry Campbell]], former mayor of Vancouver|<ref name ="Campbell 2009, chapter 6"/>}}
In the early 1980s, the DTES was an edgy but still relatively calm place to live. The neighbourhood began a marked shift before [[Expo 86]], when an estimated 800 to 1,000 tenants were evicted from DTES residential hotels to make room for tourists.<ref name="Baker2016">{{cite news|last1=Baker|first1=Rafferty|title=Expo 86 evictions: remembering the fair's dark side|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/expo-86-evictions-remembered-1.3566844|accessdate=9 May 2016|work=CBC News|place=Toronto |date=4 May 2016}}</ref> With Expo 86 also came an influx of high-purity [[cocaine]] and [[heroin]].<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 3">Campbell 2009, chapter 3</ref> In efforts to clean up other areas of the city, police cracked down on the cocaine market and street prostitution, but these activities resurfaced in the DTES.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 3"/><ref>Campbell 2009, chapter 10</ref> Within the DTES, police officers gave up on arresting the huge numbers of individual drug users, and chose to focus their efforts on dealers instead.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 13">Campbell 2009, chapter 13</ref>
Meanwhile, the provincial government adopted a policy of [[de-institutionalization]] of the mentally ill, leading to the mass discharge of [[Riverview Hospital (Coquitlam)|Riverview Hospital]]'s patients with the promise that they would be integrated into the community.<ref name ="Campbell 2009, chapter 6"/> Between 1985 and 1999, the number of patient-days of care provided by B.C. psychiatric hospitals declined by nearly 65%.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 6">Campbell 2009, chapter 6</ref> Many of the de-institutionalized mentally ill moved to the DTES, attracted by the accepting culture and low-cost housing, but floundered without adequate treatment and support and soon became addicted to the neighbourhoods's readily-available drugs.<ref>Campbell 2009, page 157</ref><ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Patterson | first1 = Michelle | title = The Faces of Homelessness Across BC | journal = Visions | volume = 4 | issue = 1 | pages = 7–8 | publisher = BC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions Information | location = Vancouver | date = Summer 2007 | url = http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/sites/default/files/visions_housing_homelessness.pdf}}</ref>
Between 1980 and 2002, more than 60 women went missing from the DTES, most of them sex workers. [[Robert William Pickton|Robert Pickton]] was charged with the murders of 26 of these women and convicted on six counts in 2007. He claimed to have murdered 49 women.<ref name="Fong2012">{{cite news|last1=Fong|first1=Petti|title=Robert Pickton: Missing women inquiry concludes bias against victims led to police failures|url=http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2012/12/17/robert_pickton_missing_women_inquiry_concludes_bias_against_victims_led_to_police_failures.html|accessdate=5 April 2016|work=Toronto Star|date=17 December 2002}}</ref> As of 2009, an estimated 39 women were still missing from the Downtown Eastside.<ref name="Elien">{{cite news|url=http://www.straight.com/article-201566/womens-memorial-march-take-place-valentines-day|title=Women's Memorial March to take place on Valentine's Day|last=Elien|first=Shadi |work=[[Georgia Straight]]| place=Vancouver|date=13 February 2009|accessdate=27 November 2009}}</ref>
===1990s to present===
{{Reduced pull quote |right | On its core blocks, dozens of people are shuffling or staggering, flinching with cocaine tics, scratching scabs. Except for the young women dressed to lure customers for sex, many are in dirt-streaked clothing that hangs from their emaciated frames. Drugs and cash are openly exchanged. The alleys are worse. | The ''[[New York Times]]'', 2011|<ref name="McNeil2011">{{cite news|last1=McNeil|first1=Donald G., Jr.|title=An H.I.V. Strategy Invites Addicts In|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/08/health/08vancouver.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0|accessdate=18 April 2016|work=The New York Times|date=7 February 2011}}</ref> }}
In the 1990s, the situation in the DTES deteriorated further on several fronts. [[Woodward's]], an [[anchor store]] in the 100-block of West Hastings street, closed in 1993 with devastating impact on the formerly bustling retail district.<ref>Campbell 2009, chapter 5"</ref> Meanwhile, a crisis in housing and homelessness was emerging.
Between 1970 and the late 1990s, the supply of low-income housing shrank in both the DTES and in other parts of the city, partly because of conversion into more expensive condominiums or hotels.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 6"/> In 1993, the federal government [[Homelessness in Canada|stopped funding social housing]], and the rate of building social housing in B.C. dropped by two-thirds despite rising demand for it.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 6"/> By 1995, reports had begun to emerge of homeless people sleeping in parks, alleyways, and abandoned buildings.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 6"/> Cuts to the provincial welfare program in 2002 caused further hardship for the poor and homeless.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 16">Campbell 2009, chapter 16</ref> Citywide, the number of homeless people climbed from 630 in 2002 to 1,300 in 2005.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 16"/>
Without the presence of a viable retail economy, a drug economy proliferated, with an accompanying increase in crime,<ref name="Douglas 2002, Introduction">Douglas 2002, Introduction</ref> while police presence actually decreased.{{sfn|Vancouver Police Department|2009|pp=26-27}} [[Crack cocaine]] arrived in Vancouver in 1995,<ref>"Campbell 2009, chapter 6"</ref> and [[crystal methamphetamine]] started to appear in the DTES in 2003.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 13"/> In 1997 the local health authority declared a public health emergency in the DTES: Rates of HIV infection, spread by needle-sharing amongst drug users, were worse than anywhere in the world outside Sub-Saharan Africa and more than 1000 people had died of drug overdoses.<ref name="MacQueen2015">{{cite news|last1=MacQueen|first1=Ken|title=The science is in. And Insite works.|url=http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/the-scientists-are-in-insite-works/|accessdate=4 April 2016|work=Maclean's| place=Toronto|date=20 July 2015}}</ref><ref name="Katic2014">{{cite news|last1=Katic|first1=Gordon and Sam Fenn|title=Vancouver's Addiction Ambitions, Revisited|url=http://thetyee.ca/News/2014/09/05/The-Four-Pillars-Revisited/|accessdate=15 April 2016|work=[[The Tyee]]|place=Vancouver|date=5 September 2014}}</ref> Efforts to reduce drug-related deaths in the DTES included the opening of a [[needle exchange]] in 1989,<ref name="CBC2004">{{cite news|title=Point for point: Canada's needle exchange programs|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news2/background/drugs/needleexchange.html|accessdate=6 June 2016|work=CBC News|place=Toronto |date=27 October 2004}}</ref> the opening of North America's [[Insite|first legal safe injection site]] in 2003, and treatment with [[anti-retroviral drugs]].<ref>Campbell 2009, chapter 7</ref> A shift among users from injected cocaine to crack cocaine use may have also slowed the spread of disease.<ref name=MacQueen2012/> Rates of HIV infection dropped from 8.1 cases per 100 person-years in 1997 to 0.37 cases per 100 person-years by 2011.<ref name="UHRI2013"/> By 2015, the 40-block area surrounding the safe injection site had also seen a 35% decline in overdose deaths.<ref name = MacQueen2015/>
[[File:Crack Cocaine Smokers in Vancouver Alleyway.jpg|thumb|left|alt=refer to caption|Addicts smoking crack cocaine in a DTES alley]]
In the 21st century, considerable investment was made in DTES services and infrastructure, including the redevelopment of the [[Woodward's Building]] and the acquisition of 23 single room occupancy hotels by the provincial government for conversion to social housing.<ref name=Morton2015/> In 2009, the ''[[The Globe and Mail]]'' estimated that governments and the private sector had spent more than $1.4 billion since 2000 on projects aimed at resolving the area's many problems.<ref name=Matas2009>{{cite news |first=Robert |last=Matas |title=The Money Pit |url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/incoming/the-money-pit/article1148807/?page=all |work=Globe and Mail | place=Toronto|publisher= |date=13 February 2009 |accessdate=3 September 2015}}</ref>
Opinions vary on whether the area has improved: A 2014 article in the conservative ''[[National Post]]'' said, "For all the money and attention here, there is little success at either getting the area's shattered populace back on their feet, or cleaning up the neighbourhood into something resembling a healthy community."<ref name="Hopper2014">{{cite news|last1=Hopper|first1=Tristin|title=Vancouver's ‘gulag’: Canada's poorest neighbourhood refuses to get better despite $1M a day in social spending|url=http://news.nationalpost.com/news/vancouvers-gulag-canadas-poorest-neighbourhood-refuses-to-get-better-despite-1m-a-day-in-social-spending|accessdate=6 April 2016|work=National Post| place=Toronto|date=14 November 2014}}</ref> Former [[New Democratic Party|NDP]] premier [[Mike Harcourt]] described the current reality of the neighbourhood as "100-per-cent failure."<ref name="Quinn2014">{{cite news|last1=Quinn|first1=Stephen|title=Downtown Eastside redevelopment debate is the same old game|url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/downtown-eastside-redevelopment-debate-is-the-same-old-game/article17505903/|accessdate=25 August 2016|work=Globe and Mail|date=14 March 2014}}</ref> Also in 2014, B.C. housing minister [[Rich Coleman]] said, "I’ll go down for a walk in the Downtown Eastside, night time or day time, and it's dramatically different than it was. It's incredibly better than it was five, six years ago."<ref name=Culbert2014/>