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Per letteratura sangam ci si riferisce al corpo della letteratura tamil classica creata tra il 600 A.C. e il 300 D.C.[1][2][3][4][5].

Questa collezione contiene 2381 poemi composti da 473 poeti, di cui 102 sono rimasti anonimi[6]. Il periodo in cui questi poemi furono composto viene definito periodo Sangam, riferendoci alle prevalenti leggende Sangam che danno il nome a tutta la letteratura.[7][8][9] Sangam literature is primarily secular dealing with everyday themes in a Tamilakam context.[10]. La letteratura Sangam è principalmente laica, ha a che fare con i temi di tutti i giorni in un contesto Tamilakam[10].

I poemi sono stati composti da uomini e donne Tamil, che svolgevano diverse professioni e appartenevano a diverse classi sociali. Questi poemi furono raccolti e pubblicati in varie antologie intorno all'anno 1000 D.C. Questa letteratura venne poi dimenticata per essere riscoperta nel XIX secolo da studiosi quali Arumuga Navalar, C. W. Thamotharampillai e U. V. Swaminatha Iyer.

NoteModifica

  1. ^ Alcuni propongono date più antiche (prima del 600 A.C.). Altri dicono intorno al 200 B.C.. The date of 300 BCE may represent a middle-of-the road consensus view; e.g. see the well-received textbook, Ancient India, Upinder Singh, 2009, p.15. However, it is quite likely that the songs existed in oral tradition well before this date.
  2. ^ Kamil Veith Zvelebil, Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature, p.12
  3. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, A History of South India, OUP (1955) p.105
  4. ^ Classical Tamil Archiviato il 7 luglio 2010 in Internet Archive.
  5. ^ T.S. Subramanian, Jain History of Tamil Nadu vandalised, su jainology.blogspot.com, 10 luglio 2009. URL consultato il 3 giugno 2011.
    «The six Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions of the 2nd century B.C. on the brow of five caverns on the Kazhugumalai hill near Mankulam, 38 km from Madurai, are the most ancient ones in Tamil Nadu and establish the historical facts that the Pandyan king Nedunchezhiyan ruled in the 2nd century B.C. and that Sangam literature dates back to the same period.».
  6. ^ George L. Hart III, The Poems of Ancient Tamil, U of California P, 1975.
  7. ^ Irayanaar Agapporul dated to c 750 AD first mentioned the Sangam legends. An inscription of the early tenth century AD mentions the achievements of the early Pandya kings of establishing a Sangam in Madurai. See K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, A History of South India, OUP (1955) p.105
  8. ^ "The latest limit of Ettutokai and Pattupattu may be placed around 700 AD...." – Vaiyapuri Pillai, History of Tamil language and literature p.38.
  9. ^ "...the Tamil language of these brief records achieved a flowering during the first centuries of the Common Era, culminating in the emergence of a poetic corpus of very high quality [...] To this corpus the name sangam poetry was added soon afterwards...." Burton Stein, A History of India (1998), Blackwell p.90.
  10. ^ a b The only religious poems among the shorter poems occur in paripaatal. The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions. See K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, OUP (1955) pp.330–335

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