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Anche divinità molto antiche, come [[Wadjet]], venivano raffigurate di fronte.
TheLa cowdea goddessera wasinvitata calleda uponconferire tola confercarica theal officere, upone thea kingdargli andl'autorità todi providesedere thesul authoritytrono. to sitQuesto onruolo thedella throne,dea asvacca king.sarebbe Thisesistito roleper forciascuno thedei localregni, cowpiccoli deityo wouldgrandi haveche existedfossero, ine eachil kingdom,suo theculto smallsarebbe asperciò wellvariato aspur theminimamente large,da andregione theira cultsregione. couldDopo havel'unificazione haddei minordue differencesregni, fromi regionculti todi region.Bat Aftere unificationHathor thequasi cultssi ofunirono Bata andloro Hathorvolta, almoste mergedmolti andaspetti manye aspects—andtradizioni traditionsvennero werescambiato, exchanged—althoughanche theyse divergedsi againdistaccarono overnel timetempo, withdato che Hathor becomingsi quitedistinse distincte andottenne havingun aruolo greaterpiù roleimportante innel thepantheon later [[Egyptian pantheon]]egiziano. Centralisation to one deity conferring the office of the king was essential for the unified country, yet the differences kept them apart for a long time.
Hathor's cult centre happened to be in the 6th Nome of Upper Egypt, which lay next to the 7th where Bat was the cow goddess, which may indicate that they were once the same goddess, whose two different titles led to divergence of the goddess under each. In many cases the differences were so strong that, as a result, there has been considerable confusion of the goddesses amongst Egyptologists.
In the image to the right above, a king of the fourth dynasty is flanked by both goddesses. They are remarkably similar in this large sculpture, however, their crowns identify them clearly. The emblem on Bat repeats the sistrum imagery and her [[zoomorphic]] face is present upon it (wearing another sistrum). The image on her crown carries the feather of [[Ma'at]] as well.
[[Image:Nagada figure.GIF|thumb|[[Predynastic Egypt|Predynastic]] [[Naqada]] fertility figurine holding her arms in a fashion that resembles the inward curving horns of Bat <ref>[http://www.world-science.net/exclusives/exclusives-nfrm/051217_egypt1.htm] [http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/archaeology/sites/naqada.htm] [http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/neolithic.html] [http://www.touregypt.net/ebph5.htm] [http://www.crystalinks.com/predynasticegypt.html] </ref>]]
Nethertheless, ultimately, as a more dominant and centralised religion grew up in the unified countries and a strong central administration developed for religious matters, Bat's shared characteristics with Hathor led to the two goddesses finally—during the [[Middle Kingdom of Egypt|Middle Kingdom]]—being identified as the same goddess, when, after thousands of years, Bat became described as an ''aspect'' of Hathor, never ''quite'' disappearing.
I testi delle Piramidi egiziane dicono:
:''IIo amsono Praisela Lode; Iio sono amla MajestyMaestà; Iio amsono B3t (Bat)con withi Hersuoi Twodue Facesvolti; Iio amsono thecolei Oneche Whoè Is Savedsalvata, ande Iio havemi savedsono myselfsalvata fromda alltutto thingsciò evilche è malvagio.''. <ref> R. O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Oxford 1969, p. 181, Utterance 506 </ref>
:''Io sono
The Egyptian [[Pyramid Texts]] say:
:''I am Praise; I am Majesty; I am B3t (Bat) with Her Two Faces; I am the One Who Is Saved, and I have saved myself from all things evil''. <ref> R. O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Oxford 1969, p. 181, Utterance 506 </ref>
== ReferencesFonti e note ==
*Henry G. Fischer in Lexikon der Ägyptologie, Wiesbaden 1975, 630-632 (Bat)
== ExternalLink linksesterni ==
*[ the goddess Bat]
*[ the goddess Bat]
*[ the goddess Bat]
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